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Just Close the Error Window
Then, click on the link to get that
Window to Open Properly
[Karl Note: The Periodic Table of Elements can be viewed by clicking on this button below. When the page first opens this application tries to load, but cannot. So, you have to close the error message window, remain on THIS page and click below. The button HERE is not active -- go down the page for the active button. This click will take you to a different web site, and this page will take a fairly long time to "load" but when you see it in operation you will be amazed. Do explore the link. The link appears on THIS page in the original source.]
Beyond the Hydrogen Atom
want to know more about elements other than hydrogen.
You've said that each element has its own set of
spectral lines, and claimed that these were
energy levels and
quantum leaps and things, but we've only
really discussed the hydrogen atom.
admire your perspicacity. It's quite true, there are
far more things in heaven and earth than just
hydrogen--over 114 different elements have now been
discovered or created in the laboratory. Let me show
you an interactive periodic table of elements, which
goes up to number 36, krypton (Kr). The table should
already have tried to open in another window if your browser
below -- it looks like the one above, but this one is
open the Table in a second window. You will be
able to go back and forth between the two windows.
Hey, if you click on different elements, you can see
their spectral lines, and how many electrons they
have. But what do s, p, and d mean?
Well...let's start from the top, with our old pal
hydrogen; go ahead and click on it in the table. It
has just one proton, with one electron...I won't say
"orbiting" around it, because that's the discredited
Rutherford model, but more or less hovering
around it in a fuzzy sort of way.
You mean like in one of those probability cloud
things in the
Precisely. Each cloud shape represents a different
"state" of the electron. We've talked about energy
levels; the energy level of the electron is one of
the things that make one state different from
another. Each level, or state, has a specific energy
for the electron and a specific set of probabilities
for its showing up in various places.
And hydrogen's spectral lines are created when the
electron jumps from one level to another--I remember
talking about all that stuff.
good. Now helium, the next element in line, has two
protons, and, in the neutral atom, two electrons...
understand what you mean by "in the neutral atom." It
doesn't always have two electrons?
element always has the same number of protons, but
the number of electrons can
vary. However, when an atom is electrically
neutral, as we've represented them here, it has just
as many electrons as protons. Now, click on helium in
the periodic table in the other window.
the two electrons--but what I still don't understand
is why helium's spectrum is so different from
hydrogen's. If it's created the same way, by those
electrons' jumping between energy levels, then the
levels in helium must not be the same as the ones in
exactly right. The difference arises from the extra
charged particles that are now in the picture. First,
each electron is being attracted to the nucleus by
twice as much positive charge as in hydrogen, and
that changes the set of energies that are "allowed."
Meanwhile, the two negatively charged electrons are
repelling each other, and that also has some effect
on the allowed states.
think I can see how this whole periodic table is
built up. You just add another proton and another
electron, and you get a new element with different
That's essentially correct. As you're about to see,
though, the electrons have to be added in a very
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